VATA - Vata governs movement and neural-electrical impulses. It is responsible for some of the basic body functions such as the heartbeat, cell division, movement of food in digestion and the workings of the nervous system.
PITTA - Pitta is known as Energy of Digestion and Metabolism. Pitta Dosha (bio-energy) is a combination of water and fire elements and formulated by the dynamic interplay of the both. These elements are transformative in nature thus they constantly modulate and control each other.
KAPHA - Kapha is an alliance of water and earth elements. Kapha represents the Energy of Lubrication and Structure in Ayurveda. Kapha comprises all our cells, tissues and organs. Kapha molecules act as glue that hold the body together and provides it the basis for physical structure
FOUNDATIONAL ELEMENTS OF AYURVEDA: PRAKRITI
According to Ayurveda, everything in this universe is made up of five elements, namely, earth, water, fire, air and ether (space). The word Prakriti means "nature" or natural form of the build and constitution of the human body. Ayurveda lays emphasis on examining the Prakriti or the natural state of an individual first. The vikriti i.e. disease is examined later. While the expert in modern medicine analyses the disease, the Ayurvedic expert is also interested in the individual who is suffering from the disease.
All material in the universe, animate or inanimate, is composed of five basic elements - namely Akaash, Vaayu, Agni, Jal and Prithvi. Akash, or space, is omnipresent and all pervading; a substratum to the other four elements and due to its presence one can separate or differentiate material. Vaayu, or air, is responsible for the movement of all types and is vital for the existence of all creatures. Agni, is the element of energy or heat. Jal, is the element of water essential for sustenance of life. Prithvi, or earth, is responsible for structure and bulk of the material. These elements combine to form the three Doshas, Vata, Pitta, and Kapha, or metabolic types and are represented in the human body in different forms. For instance, bones and teeth are earth, blood and lymph are water, the metabolism is fire, oxygen is air, and ether is the spaces found between matter, represented best by vibration or sound. Vata is a combination of Ether (space) and Air, Pitta is formed by combination of Fire and water and Kapha is a combination of Water and Earth. These various Doshas govern different functions and different attributes in the individual's body.